ECS 203 Assignment #2

In one way or another, we all have experienced apart of the Tyler rationale in our school lives up to university every day, being excused by the bell.  With the roots that the Tyler rationale has in behavioural psychology, we are similar to that of Pavlov and his dogs, with the ringing of the bell. As a response to the bell we make assumptions of what should happen next, which is to continue on to the next class.  Even in university, we still have this mindset that we are excused by the clock, rather than the teacher.  As many professors notice and comment that as class begins to wind down and it seems as thought the lecture is almost over, we began to start packing up or in the case of online classes tune out of what is being said, because that’s how we have been brought up.  Bells and time have controlled us from the time we were six or even younger, and possibly by using bells as reinforcement we were taught the proper behaviour, which was to calmly and quietly transition to the next class.  This is a great example of one way that we have been encouraged to have good behaviour, and to be like good citizens, and always on time.

(b) What are the major limitations of the Tyler rationale/what does it make impossible?

The Tyler rationale completely excludes the importance of the individual person, and instead focuses more on molding children into what society needs them to be again leaning into the idea of “common sense” (molding the child into what society at the time deems worthy and correct).  The use of manufacturing references compares a child to something that can be built into what is needed by others.  The article says, “People are first members of society and second individuals.” (Schiro, 2013, 7), which is probably why artistic capabilities was so unimportant to the class and is sadly to this still considered something that is unimportant.  In society we people feel as though we do not really need art, and so the people who create art are sometimes seen as non-functioning members of society.  Even though they can work as hard as others, their contributions are not always seen as important as maybe someone who creates new technologies.

The Tyler rationale also lacks room for creativity.  The steps in which to take are very laid out, and basically are: the educational purposes, what to do to accomplish them, how to organize them and assessment (Schiro, 2013, 2).  As good as it is to have structure, this layout is very stiff, and does not leave much room for creativity or student accommodation as it seems as thought our society has not figured out that there isn’t just one kind of learner.  I think that with this rationale, if a student did not fit, or was not manufactured properly, then they would be left behind.  If the classic ways of teaching do not work for a student, then they are not able to be built into the society members that Tyler says we need.  Maybe if we had less structure, and more creativity, we would have more people in jobs that they are passionate about, and less that hate their day job.

Another statement that I do not agree with is that childhood is only preparation for adulthood (Schiro, 2013, 7).  Yes, we do teach children to survive in the real world, but I do not think that is the only purpose.  Children have their own ideas, interests and hobbies.  To say that means nothing is taking away a part of their identity.  Also when you look back on your childhood, do you remember all of the things that you learned in school, or do you remember the friends you had, the games you played, and the stuff you liked?  While we do use this time to prepare somewhat for adulthood, I do not think that is the sole purpose and is backed by the education system in Finland in how they address teaching and school an their purpose.

(c) What are some potential benefits/what is made possible? Be sure to refer to the assigned article in your post; you may also include information from lecture if you wish.

The efficiency created by the Tyler rationale is definitely a benefit.  By having a laid out curriculum that everyone uses to teach all students has good results for the most part.  It attempts to make education more neutral (even though it is not as neutral as we think and to an extent will never be able to be neutral as the people that teach the curriculum and the curriculum itself isn’t neutral), and gives everyone an equal chance to learn the same material.  This method is also really good for society, because it creates exactly what is needed to keep moving forward.  Technology and computer science, for example, are fields that may not have been as important in the past, but now are booming and a lot of people are needed to fill the jobs there.  Computer skills are now taught in schools because most jobs that you will have need computers, and it is important to adapt students for that.  the Tyler rationale makes room for these adaptions, which is a good thing for the ever changing society that we live in.

ECS 203 Assignment #1

Kumashiro, defines common sense in many ways but to paraphrase he says common sense  is dictated by what everyone considers “normal” and an expected form of practice which is dictated and fuelled by the pressure of society. Common sense although can be seen in a positive light because it acts as a secondary gate when we go to make decisions. As much as this can be very practical and beneficial can be very dangerous when not put into check.  Although it can be a deterrent to stop the making of bad decisions, but it can also create a deterrent to stop the making of good valuable decisions. This can be translated when creating curriculums that affect students and their education, common sense can be seen as one sided and not equal and can created a environment that is prejudice and racist towards the very students that are to be educated and given equal opportunity. So my view of common sense in this case is that it give off a negative connotation because it creates inequality and oppression in thought and therefore in action. The model that was encountered in Nepal was “lecture, practice and exam”.

ECS 203 Assignment #4

According to the school system to be a considered a “good” student you need to abiding by rules that have been set in schools. This means: behaving well, doing homework, attending school, participating in class and extracurricular activities and  being engaged.  Common sense see’s what is the stereotypical white middle-class child come to school and do well and achieve great things in there life. Students that are privileged by the definition of the “good student” are those who come from a “good family” which is basically a financially well off family with presence in the community and who are of European descent and are white. If they believe in the church system, if you are upper class and your family has money and if they fall into the male or female category (being straight) you live the life of a “good student”. “Mainstream society often places value on certain kinds of behaviors, knowledge, and skills, and schools would disadvantage students by not teaching what often matters in schools and society” (p. 20) The idea of common sense makes it nearly impossible to see what is going on with our students, mentally, spiritually and emotionally. You will never get to know the students on a personal level, you wont be able to know what makes them tic.

ECS 203 Assignment #3

David Gillborn (1992) Citizenship, ‘Race’ and the Hidden Curriculum, International Studies in Sociology of Education, 2:1, 57-73,DOI: 10.1080/0962021920020104

For assignment #1 I decided to research and discuss the topic of Race and
Curriculum. During my research I came across this paper ‘Race’ and the Hidden Curriculum by David Gillborn. Although this document as written a while ago I found it to be still very relevant. The quotes that this paper was inspired by really caught my attention. They are as follows;

“Citizenship … is a very hard concept; not not of moral exhortation, but on of the realities of peoples lives. (Sir Raif Dahrendorf)”

“There are very many areas in our country where people who talk about citizenship, and who talk about citizenship within a context of Britishness, are the very people who likely to harass you daughter and your wife as they go to school or as they go out shopping, and are the very people who are likely to lob a brick through your window, to put fire bomb through your letterbox … (Paul Boateng MP, elected in 1987, one of the first ever black members of the British Parliament)”

The article written in the UK explains that through the use of the hidden curriculum, schools already teach about the reactive of citizenship for black people. Through this hidden curriculum students are learned the second class nature of the rights given to the black communities. The writer goes on to say how these experiences challenge the ideology off a liberal, pluralist democracy in this context moves to establish ‘education for citizenship’ which proves at best diversionary and at worst, another way of legitimating a corrupt status quo or in other words ‘common sense’. He goes onto say that although There are negatives sides that teachers have the opportunity to challenge stereotypes and empower students by putting anti-racist principles into practice. The paper as a whole argues that there is a great need to recognize and challenge the racism that operates in schools and society.

As I continue my research I plan to continue to delve deep into the topic and find resources that are earlier in date so I can use the different perspectives in time to bring to light the fact that Race in curriculum will always be an issue when it is not discussed and especially when we continue to teach a curriculum which is built and framed to isolate the oppressed and continue to separate the divide between the different races through the lack of education and through the censored curriculum or the curriculum built on “common sense”

ECS 200 Blog #8: Socio-political Soncturctions of Schooling

  1. Social Conflict Theory: How our educational system can cause and relate class differences.
  2. Meritocracy: The belief that hardwork and talent will give you recognition and reward.
  3. Social inequality is reflected upon the society. It is promoted by the educational systems that we are in. “Educational systems are grounded in the biases of the sociaty that they are built within”.


  1. The idea of meritocracy gives false hope for children of the minority who are in places where it is made so that equality is not attainable, this is seen in the schools system through standardized testing where the test is geared towards one type of person one type if learner one type of class and even one gender. Other things such as tracking which is when a student is followed in the academic world as is given opportunities which encourage them to lead to certain types of careers, which as a result results in what see today as gender pay gap and even a gap between races and economical status which is a hug problem in out society. “Structural features such as: taxes to cultural capital to standardized testing can disadvantage minorities i ways that can perpetuate patterns of social inequality.
  2. I believe that today it is the schools responsibility to emulate to the children the world that they live in by having the teachers reflect the world. If we as a school system neglect this then we are just as bad as people how are out right discrimtory and racist because when allow children to think and created prejudices and biases based upon the environment n which they were taught. “Teachers need to train children to uncover face, and change their own biases, discomforts, and misinformation and identify and alter educational practices that collude with racism and others insttitucationalized discrimination and prejudice.”
  3. I believe that in ECS 200 is so important that we teacher students about the real world and we emulate that through what we do, how we speak and how we look, and the only way that we as teachers can do that is if we are confident in ourselves and know how we are what our identity as a teacher. “By not discussing racial problems we allow students to think this is normal and right and therefore we teach children to participate by passively and quietly accepting the benefits of racism that is directed towards a different group.”


  1. It is right and is it safe that teachers not be allowed to change and alter the curriculum based on their students needs without having go to the top where there are the people that are the mosted detached from the educational world to say yes or no?

ECS 200 Blog #7:Social – Historical Constructions of Schooling

  1.  (History of Education in Saskatchewan) For the First Nations people, before missionary schools etc came along, school was something that was not just an institution but it was a traditions, and was based on the children imitating the adults. The way that they viewed education was that it equally encompassed everything such as their spiritual practices etc.
  2. The First Nations people viewed the children not from the view that they belonged to the parents but more so they were loaned to the parents by the Creator. They communities rarely punished or scolded the children and corporal punishment was not a thing.
  3. Once the Europeans came they changed everything for the First Nations people. They didnt allow the children to speak their native language, but they tried to enforce there idea of a “balanced” education which was enforcing gender roles on the women and men, and therefore limiting them and their potential. That is also when they started to turn the education into an institution where money could be made.


  1.  I believe that if we as an educational system went back to the beginning and started to draw from what the First Nations did when they taught their children;  for example, when they incorporated everything into “school” meaning you did it all the time, life was your school. I believe that we should go back to the basics because I believe that in the school system that we have now, when we try to do what the Europeans did we limit and categorize children based on what we want them be which is concluded from their colour, religion, home environment, and gender we create a shallow and broken world.
  2. I believe that schools should emulate the real world, which I believe is what the First Nations people did.


  1. Why does our schools still to this day fight the idea of a ‘complete education’ where the school emulates the real world? I believe that if the First Nations people can do it so can our world today escpecially with the resources that we have.

ECS 200 Blog #5: Diverse perspectives on development and learning

  1.  The School system forces people from different background and cultures to assimilate to the English language and Eurocentrism.
  2. The lack of funding in schools do not only affect the different ways that a child can learn but it limits the resources that allow children to learn out of the box and not in the traditional ways which therefor give the children a richer learning experience. Ie: children should be aware of the true culture of the land and not just things about European culture and history. We should be well versed and knowledgeable about the aboriginal culture and history. ( the education system is very one sided and in a way can come off racist or discriminatory )
  3. Benally “ when we are not taught in this way, drawing from all four areas of knowledge,  we become spiritually, emotionally, socially, physically, ad environmentally improverished. We become narrow in our views and cannot see the connection between all knowledge. We wind up perpetuating the imbalance within and between ourselves, other people and the natural world.”


  1.  I love how this reading points out the imperfections of the public education system in that it is very one sided in that it really is not about learning to become a better human being or a functional human being in the world, that is aware of the history of  the country they live in. But rather just teaching for the sake of teaching kids.
  2. I love how the article talks a lot about aboriginal views and beliefs. As a teacher to be its important that we dont just learn it and regergetate it but we understand and relate to it.


  1.  As an education system we need to work a lot faster to implement and intergrate aboriginal teachings and history into our school system so it allows their voice to be heard ad understood.


ECS 200 Blog #3: Social & Moral Development Theories

  1.  Associative Play: this is when children engage in the same activity side by side but with an increased level of interaction in the form of sharing, turn-taking and general interest in what other children around them are doing.
  2. The different types of morality:
    1. Autonomous Morality
    2. Heteronomous Morality
    3. Preconventional Level of Morality
  3. Psychosocial Theory: Erickson’s work that dealt with principles of psychological and social development: ie. puberty etc.


1. Erickson’s view point about social development and so forth were very much influenced by his life experiences as seen in the facts that 1. He struggled with belonging since his mother was Jewish and his father was Danish and he was born in Germany. This effected his life in his adolescent years which made his theory really focused on the part of life.

2. Kolberg’s theory was very much influenced by his western view point as well as his priviliged point of view. In his research he only interviewed boys. As a teacher to be I find that because these theories are implemented into our systems it hinders teachers and even students from seeing all as equals.


1. Both of these theories though they have good ideas come from a one sided view that in the end ends up limiting what they could have accomplished if they 1. Saw everyone as equals etc.